zondag 9 december 2012

Let's Learn Japanese ~ Lesson 4: Grammar (2)

Alright, it's been a while, but here's another lesson. We'll continue were we left off last time! I hope you studied  well!


is added after a topic instead of when the statement about the topic is the same as the previous topic.
Some examples:

マリア は 学生 です。
私 も 学生 です。
Maria is a student.
I am a student too.

田中さん は 学生 じゃありません。
ロビンさん も 学生 じゃありません。
Mr. Tanaka isn't a student.
Mr. Robin isn't a student either.

N1 N2 (1)

is used to connect two nouns. N1 modifies N2.

(1) N1 is an organization N2 belongs to.

田中さん Xの会社員 です。
Mr.Tanaka is a X employee.


これ、それ and あれ are demonstratives, they work as nouns. これ refers to something near the speaker. それ refers to something near the listener. あれ refers to something that's far away from both the speaker and the listener.

Some examples.
This is a book

That is a clock.


この、その  andあのare use in combination with nouns, to modify those. この、そのand あの on their own aren't nouns. このN refers to something close to the listener. そのN refers to something close to the listener. あのN refers to something far from both the speaker and the listener.

そのかばん は ロビンさんの です。
That bag is Mr.Robin's.

あの人 は 誰 ですか。
Who is that person?

N1 N2 (2)

(2) N1 explains what N2 is about.

これは コンピューター の ほん です。
This is a book about computers.

(3) N1 explains who owns N2.

それは マリア の かさ です。
That is Maria's umbrella.

Sometimes it's possible to omit N2, because it's obvious. You can never omit N2 when it's a person though.

あれは 誰 の かさ ですか?
Whose umbrella is that?
... It's Maria's.


Okay, let's leave the grammar with that for now and give some homework again. Of course, be sure to study the grammar well! And I also have some vocabulary I'd like you to learn. Again, there's no need to learn how to write the kanji, but try to recognize them and now their reading and meaning. If you want to practice a bit more, try to translate the sentences.


これ                                                                    this (thing here)
それ                                                                    that (thing near you)
あれ                                                                    that (thing over there)

この~                                                                              this~ (here)
その~                                                                              that~ (near you)
あの~                                                                              that~ (over there)

ほん                                                                            book
じしょ                                               辞書                     dictionary
ざっし                                               雑誌                     magazine
しんぶん                                           新聞                     newspaper
ノート                                                                            notebook
めいし                                               名刺                     business card
カード                                                                              card

えんぴつ                                            鉛筆                     pencil
シャープペンシル                                                          mechanical pencil

かぎ                                                                             key
とけい                                               時計                      clock
かさ                                                                             umbrella
かばん                                                                             bag
テレビ                                                                              TV
ラジオ                                                                              Radio
カメラ                                                                              Camera
コンピューター                                                              Computer
パソコン                                                                          PC
じどうしゃ                                       自動車                   Car
くるま                                                                         Car

つくえ                                                                         Desk
いす                                                   椅子                     Chair

チョコレート                                                              Chocolate
コーヒー                                                                      Coffee

えいご                                               英語                     English
にほん                                          日本語                  Japanese
~語                                                                              ~language

なん、なに                                                                what

English to Japanese
1) I am a student. Maria is a student too.
2) That (near you) is my notebook.
3)This is Tanaka's coffee.
4) Whose desk is that (over there)?
5)That magazine about computers is Robin's.

Japanese to English
1) それはロビンのじゃありません。それも田中のじゃありません。

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